The Mauryan Dynasty
One of the Inner Sources of
Modern Theosophical Movement
Carlos Cardoso Aveline
Chandragupta Maurya, the first emperor of
India, from an Indian Postal Stamp issued in 2001
1. Ashoka, a Pioneer of Ecology
In her “Atlas of Ancient Worlds”, Dr. Anne Millard sums up:
“A Dynasty of Kings called the Mauryans ruled India from 322-185 BC. They came to power hundreds of years after the collapse of the great Indus Valley civilization. By about 600 BC the Aryan invaders of the Indus Valley had merged with the rest of the Indian population. They introduced their Sanskrit language and composed sacred hymns, called the ‘Vedas’, that laid the foundation of their society and Hindu religion. But the country was still divided into small, rival kingdoms that were constantly challenging each other for overall power.”
Actually, the Vedas are much older than Dr. Anne Millard supposes. Her narrative is not accurate regarding dates, but it gives us a general view of facts.
She goes on:
“However there was a bigger threat from the West. In 330 BC Alexander the Great, who had recently defeated the Persians, marched his army into India. But the troops were exhausted, and after only a few months they headed home. It was at this point that a young Indian warrior, Chandragupta Maurya, seized power. First, he overthrew the ruling kingdom of Magadha. Then he challenged the Greek general Seleucus, who had taken over part of Alexander’s empire. Chandragupta proved to be a clever ruler and a great soldier. By the time his grandson Ashoka took over, India was already united into its first great empire.” 
The karma of a country or civilization is related to the way its people behave regarding forests and animals, and Ashoka protected both. He saw the importance of forests for the future of India.
Yet he started his life leading wars:
“The Mauryan Empire reached its peak under the rule of Ashoka. He came to power in about 272 BC with a reputation for war and violence. Under his leadership, the empire grew even bigger. The turning point in Ashoka’s life came after the battle of Kalinga. During the bloody battle against the Kalinga army more than 100,000 soldiers and civilians were killed. Ashoka was so horrified by all the bloodshed that he converted to Buddhism. From then on his leadership changed. He began to practice Buddha’s laws of non-violence and encouraged peace between all people. He arranged for hospitals to be built, and introduced plans to protect the forests.”
Planting trees, preserving native forests and protecting the wildlife were three priorities in Ashoka’s India. The emperor was against the sacrifice of animals. He is probably the first king in History to establish public policies for the preservation of animal life, as one can see by his edits written in stone and scattered in different places of the country.
“In his enthusiasm for Buddhism”, says Dr. Millard, “Ashoka built, and encouraged others to build, monasteries and sacred mounds called stupas. He also erected polished sandstone pillars across the empire. The pillars were engraved with pledges to rule with kindness and truth.”
The divine knowledge inspiring modern theosophy is essentially the same as the wisdom taught by emperor Ashoka. The Mauryan Dynasty relates to the essence and the source of the theosophical movement.
2. A Question on the Moryas and Koothumi
In December 1883, Helena Blavatsky was the editor of “The Theosophist” in India when the magazine published on page 99 a thoughtful letter asking a question with regard to the Mauryas and the rishi Koothoomi.
The letter said:
“It is stated in Matsya Purana, Chapter 272, that ten Moryas would reign over India, and would be succeeded by Shoongas, and that Shata Dhanva will be the first of these ten Maureyas (or Moryas).”
“In Vishnu Purana (Book IV, Chapter 4) it is stated that there was in the Soorya Dynasty a king called ‘Maru, who, through the power of devotion (Yoga), is still living in the village called Kalapa’, in the Himalayas (Vide p. 197, Vol. III, by Wilson), and who ‘in a future age, will be the restorer of the Kshatriya race in the solar dynasty’, that is, many thousands of years hence.”
“In another part of the same Purana, Book IV, Chapter 24, it is stated that ‘upon the cessation of the race of Nanda, the Mauryas  will possess the earth, for Kautilya will place Chandragupta on the throne’. Col. Tod considers Morya, or Maurya, a corruption of Mori, the name of a Rajput tribe. The Tika on the Mahavansa thinks that the princes of the town Mori were thence called Mauryas. Vachaspati, a Sanskrit Encyclopaedist, places the village of Kalapa on the northern side of the Himalayas – hence in Tibet. The same is stated in Chapter 12 (Skanda) of Bhagavat. ‘The Vâyu Purana seems to declare that he [Maru] will re-establish the Kshatriyas in the nineteenth coming yuga’. (Vol. III, p. 325.)”
The letter concluded:
“In Chapter VI, Book III of Vishnu Purana, a Rishi called Koothumi is mentioned. Will any of our brothers tell us how our Mahatmas stand to these revered personages? Yours obediently, R. Ragoonath Row, Madras Theosophical Society.”
The above question is significant in the 21st century, for some forms of pseudo-theosophy implicitly deny the existence of the masters of the wisdom, adopting an appearance of scholarly skepticism, while others distort the information available on the masters by developing an emotional worship of fake portraits and imaginary teachers. Blind devotion and blind skepticism are twin brothers in Karma.
3. Ancient Scriptures, on the Dynasty
The answer from Helena Blavatsky to the question submitted by R. Ragoonath Row is entitled “Editor’s Note”. She said:
“In the Buddhist Mahavanśa, Chandagutta or Chandragupta, Ashoka’s grandfather, is called a prince of the Moriyan dynasty as he certainly was – or rather – as they were, for there were several Chandraguptas.”
“This dynasty, as said in the same book, began with certain Kshatriyas (warriors) of the Sâkya line closely related to Gautama Buddha who crossing the Himavantah (Himalayas) ‘discovered a delightful location, well-watered, and situated in the midst of a forest of lofty bo and other trees. There they founded a town, which was called by its Sâkya lords – Moriya-Nagara.’ Prof. Max Müller would see in this legend a made-up story for two reasons:
“(1) A desire on the part of the Buddhists to connect their king Ashoka, ‘the beloved of gods’ with Buddha, and thus nullify the slanders set up by the Brahmanical opponents to Buddhism to the effect that Ashoka and Chandragupta were Sudras; and”
“(2) because this document does not dovetail with his own theories and chronology based on the cock-and-bull stories of the Greek Megasthenes and others.”
“It is not the princes of Moriya-Nagara who owe their name to the Rajput tribe of Mori, but the latter that became so well known as being composed of the descendants of the first sovereign of Moriya, Nagari-Môrya. The subsequent destiny of that dynasty is more than hinted at, on pages 39 and 40 (footnote) in the November number of ‘The Theosophist’. Page 43 of the same magazine gives full details.” 
As to the name Koothumi or Koothoomi, the founder of the theosophical movement says:
“The name of Rishi Koothumi is mentioned in more than one Purana, and his Code is among the 18 Codes written by the various Rishis and preserved at Calcutta in the library of the Asiatic Society. But we have not been told whether there is any connection between our Mahatma of that name, and the Rishi, and we do not feel justified in speculating upon the subject. All we know is, that both are Northern Brahmans, while the Môryas are Kshatriyas. If any of our Brothers know more or can discover anything relating to the subject in the Sacred books, we will hear of it with pleasure.”
“The words: ‘the Moryas will possess the earth for Kautilya will place Chandragupta on the throne’, have in our occult philosophy and interpretations a dual meaning. In one sense they relate to the days of early Buddhism, when a Chandragupta (Morya) was the King ‘of all the earth’, i. e., of Brahmans who believed themselves the highest and only representatives of humanity for whom Earth was evolved. The second meaning is purely esoteric. Every adept or genuine Mahatma is said to ‘possess the earth’, by the power of his occult knowledge. Hence – a series of 10 Moryas, all initiated adepts, would be regarded by the occultists, and referred to, as ‘possessing all the earth’ or all its knowledge. The names of ‘Chandragupta’ and ‘Kautilya’ have also an esoteric significance. Let our Brother ponder over their Sanskrit meaning, and he will perhaps see what bearing the phrase – ‘for Kautilya will place Chandragupta upon the throne’ – has upon the Moryas possessing the earth. We would also remind our Brother that the word ‘Itihâsa’, ordinarily translated as ‘history’, is defined by Sanskrit authorities to be the narrative of the lives of some august personages, conveying at the same time meanings of the highest moral and occult importance.” 
Life examples of great sages are sources of inspiration for truth-seekers living in any time or nation.
4. A Royal Line of Eastern Chohans
The article “Sakya Muni’s Place in History”  tells the story of the seven golden statues of Lord Buddha, made by order of the first Council one year after his bodily death.
The statues had a destination to be reached in due time in the Himalayas.
As decades and centuries passed, the first statue was plundered by robbers and melted. The second one had a similar fate. The third was rescued by a Chinese military from a barbarous tribe of Bhons. The fourth statue was sunk during the third century of “Christian” era, together with the ship that carried it. The fifth one reached its destination just in time, thanks to Arhat Kasyapa. And so did the last two statues. 
Kasyapa belonged to the dynasty of Moryas, founded by one of the Chandraguptas. He had left the convent of Panch-Kukkutarama carrying the fifth statue in the year 436, Western era.
A long footnote in the article “Sakya Muni’s Place in History” says that there are memoirs containing the record of the sage’s daily life. The article then makes a statement regarding the Mauryan dynasty in both ancient and contemporary times:
“These texts [the memoirs] have ever been in the possession of the superiors of the first Lamasery built by Arhat Kasyapa in Bod-Yul [Tibet], most of whose Chohans were the descendants of the dynasty of the Moryas, there being up to this day three of the members of this once royal family living in India.” 
At this point, it must be said that the physical locations of sages are of no real importance. Their work transcends the realm of matter and unfolds on a planetary scale.
While pseudo-Tibetan Buddhism obeys to the laws of propaganda more than anything else, the inner impulse inspiring the theosophical movement comes from secluded spots in different continents with which superficial esotericists and “Buddhists” have no chance to have real affinity. It is hoped that the number will grow of theosophists who seek to live in harmony with the spiritual (not geographical) sources of the theosophical effort.
5. A Long-term Project to Help Mankind
In the volume one of “The Secret Doctrine”, Helena Blavatsky gives her readers more information on the mission of the Mauryan Dynasty, while compiling and summing up data given in previous texts.
“The Kali yuga reigns now supreme in India, and it seems to coincide with that of the Western age. Anyhow, it is curious to see how prophetic in almost all things was the writer of Vishnu Purana when foretelling to Maitreya some of the dark influences and sins of this Kali Yug.”
Blavatsky then quotes these sentences from the “Vishnu Purana”, which occur right after the scripture says that the “barbarians” and their mentality will dominate India:
“There will be contemporary monarchs, reigning over the earth – kings of churlish spirit, violent temper, and ever addicted to falsehood and wickedness. They will inflict death on women, children, and cows; they will seize upon the property of their subjects, and be intent upon the wives of others; they will be of unlimited power, their lives will be short, their desires insatiable. (….) Wealth and piety will decrease until the world will be wholly depraved. Property alone will confer rank; wealth will be the only source of devotion; passion will be the sole bond of union between the sexes; falsehood will be the only means of success in litigation; and women will be objects merely of sensual gratification. (…) External types will be the only distinction of the several orders of life; (….) a man if rich will be reputed pure; dishonesty (anyaya) will be the universal means of subsistence, weakness the cause of dependence, menace and presumption will be substituted for learning; liberality will be devotion; mutual assent, marriage; fine clothes, dignity. (….) When the close of the Kali age shall be nigh, a portion of that divine being which exists, of its own spiritual nature (….) shall descend on Earth (….) (Kalki Avatar) endowed with the eight superhuman faculties. (….) He will re-establish righteousness on earth, and the minds of those who live at the end of Kali Yuga shall be awakened and become as pellucid as crystal.” 
While the prophecy refers to wider cycles, it is also useful for the meditation of those who live in the 21st century.
On p. 378, volume I of “The Secret Doctrine”, Blavatsky quotes from the “Vayu Purana”:
“….Two persons, Devapi, of the race of Kuru and Moru, of the family of Ikshwaku, continue alive throughout the four ages, residing at Kalapa. They will return hither in the beginning of the Krita age ….. Moru the son of Sighru through the power of Yoga is still living……. and will be the restorer of the Kshattriya race of the Solar dynasty. (‘Vayu Purana’, Vol. III, p. 197).”
This is long-term future. It means the mission of Mauryan Dynasty will not be interrupted any time soon.
Regarding the term “Moru”, HPB writes in two footnotes on the same page, the first of which restates an idea that has been already said:
* “The ‘Vayu Purana’ declares that Moru will re-establish the Kshattriya in the Nineteenth coming Yuga. (See ‘Five years of Theosophy’, p. 483. ‘The Moryas and Koothoomi’.)”
* “Max Müller translates the name as Morya, of the Morya dynasty, to which Chandragupta belonged (see Sanskrit Literature). In ‘Matsya Purana’, chapter cclxxii, the dynasty of ten Moryas (or Maureyas) is spoken of. In the same chapter, cclxxii, it is stated that the Moryas will one day reign over India, after restoring the Kshattriya race many thousand years hence. Only that reign will be purely Spiritual and ‘not of this world’. It will be the kingdom of the next Avatar. Colonel Tod believes the name Morya (or Maureyas) a corruption of Mori, a Rajpoot tribe, and the commentary on Mahavansa thinks that some princes have taken their name Maurya from their town called Mori, or, as Professor Max Müller gives it, Morya-Nagara, which is more correct, after the original Mahavansa. Vachaspattya, we are informed by our Brother, Devan Badhadur R. Ragoonath Rao, of Madras, a Sanskrit Encyclopedia, places Katapa (Kalapa) on the northern side of the Himalayas, hence in Tibet. The same is stated in chapter xii. (Skanda) of Bhagavat, Vol. III, p. 325.”
The topic deserves calm consideration, for it refers to the higher aspects of the Effort that guides our mankind along the path to wisdom and across obstacles of every kind.
The collective journey is probationary, just as the individual journey of every pilgrim: each and all must share the common karma of humanity. Human evolution is safe, thanks to the Universal Law and to those impersonal souls who protect mankind according to Law.
6. A Cyclic Help That Does Not Fail
The prophecy saying that a great sage will rescue mankind from ignorance is included in several writings by Helena Blavatsky.
It is, of course, also found in different ways in various religious traditions, including Judaism. It is from the Jewish Scriptures that Christianity and Islam derived their own versions of the cyclic law.
The timing of the sacred Return is recurrent and multiple. The help to mankind takes place on various occasions according to the Law of Karma. It depends on human beings deserving it and being entitled to it.
Justice is pendulum-like in movement, and Krishna says on chapter 4 of the Bhagavad-Gita:
“I produce myself among creatures, O son of Bharata, whenever there is a decline of virtue and an insurrection of vice and injustice in the world; and thus I incarnate from age to age for the preservation of the just, the destruction of the wicked, and the establishment of righteousness.” 
The same passage appears in the book “Gita the Mother, Commentary by Dnyaneshwar Maharaj”, better known as “Dnyaneshvari”. There we find a subtle explanation of great technical importance:
“Only the wise ones know Me in My incarnation.” 
Facts are facts, and not everyone enjoys looking at them.
Cycles long and short interact. Eternity can be found in the fraction of one second, and universal law is present in daily life. While great events may be distant, the transcendent teachings about them constitute a source of inspiration to every earnest theosophist, for whom it is always possible to make effective efforts according to his or her strength.
The study of large cycles and the long-term action of Sages to guide mankind is therefore an essential aspect in any serious theosophical study.
Helena Blavatsky wrote while referring to Tsong-kha-pa, the great adept and Buddhist reformer.
“Among the commandments of Tsong-kha-pa there is one that enjoins the Rahats (Arhats) to make an attempt to enlighten the world, including the ‘white barbarians’, every century, at a certain specified period of the cycle.”
She then speaks of failure, but we know there is actually no failure in well-made and well-meaning attempts: apparent failures are preparations leading to victory. Her own mission was innerly victorious, and outwardly a defeat, due to karma and the betrayal of many immediately after her death in 1891.
“Up to the present day none of these attempts has been very successful. Failure has followed failure. Have we to explain the fact by the light of a certain prophecy? It is said that up to the time when Pan-chen-rin-po-che (the Great Jewel of Wisdom)  condescends to be reborn in the land of the Pelings (Westerners), and appearing as the Spiritual Conqueror (Chom-den-da), destroys the errors and ignorance of the ages, it will be of little use to try to uproot the misconceptions of Peling-pa (Europe): her sons will listen to no one.” 
The idea of a “spiritual conqueror” as mentioned by HPB seems to coincide in general terms with the prophecies referring to the Mauryan Dynasty. And Blavatsky wrote more on the subject.
7. The Planetary Network of Wisdom
Every grand idea and ideal may induce ill-informed or naïve people to illusion. In accordance with this axiom, the number of pseudo-Avatars, would-be Christs and candidates to the position of “great teacher of humanity” has not been small in the last two thousand years or so.
The theosophical movement is no exception.
Mrs. Annie Besant, for instance, abandoned true theosophy soon after H.P. Blavatsky died and succeed in conquering political power in the movement. In the first decades of the 20th century, Mrs. Besant dedicated her political talents to produce a parody of Christ’s return. Perhaps unconsciously to herself, she used Mr. Jiddu Krishnamurti as her puppet, until he got tired of the farce and gave up playing the role of Lord Christ in 1929.
The wall of delusions surrounding true facts in theosophy serves as a barrier of tests, which will be successfully crossed by those who are entitled to it.
While unconsciously betraying the theosophical cause, Annie Besant served humanity in a bizarre way. She led many into dire confusion, and this very fact forces the movement to develop a better degree of discernment by overcoming the illusions created by her. Obstacles are part of life: defeats give us lessons, treason stimulates a stronger sense of loyalty, and the mission of the true theosophical movement is greater than its mistakes. Sacred wisdom can always be understood by those who have an impersonal, calm, honest attitude toward its universal tenets.
The true doctrine regarding a long-term work for a better future of mankind is given by HPB in various texts in somewhat different ways. One example can be found on pp. 104-105 of volume VI of her Collected Writings, in a passage of her article “Tibetan Teachings”.
To begin with, she refers to the source of the information:
“The notes that follow are compiled, or rather translated, as closely as the idiomatic differences would permit, from Tibetan letters and manuscripts, sent in answer to several questions regarding the western misconceptions of Northern Buddhism or Lamaism. The information comes from a Gelung of the Inner Temple – a disciple of Bas-pa Dharma, the Secret Doctrine.”
And these are the first words of the statement she transmits:
“Brothers residing in Gya-Peling – British India – having respectfully called my master’s attention to certain incorrect and misleading statements about the Good Doctrine of our blessed Phag-pa Sang-gyas – most Holy Buddha – as alleged to be carried on in Bhod-Yul, the land of Tibet, I am commanded by the revered Ngag-pa to answer them. I will do so, as far as our rules will permit me to discuss so sacred a subject openly. I can do no more, since, till the day when our Pan-chen-rin-po-che shall be reborn in the lands of the Pelings – foreigners – and, appearing as the great Chom-dan-da, the conqueror, shall destroy with his mighty hand the errors and ignorance of ages, it will be of little, if of any, use to try to uproot these misconceptions.”
At this point HPB explains:
“A prophecy of Tsong-ka-pa is current in Tibet to the effect that the true doctrine will be maintained in its purity only so long as Tibet is kept free from the incursions of western nations, whose crude ideas of fundamental truth would inevitably confuse and obscure the followers of the Good Law. But, when the western world is more ripe in the direction of philosophy, the incarnation of Pan-chen-rin-po-che – the Great Jewel of Wisdom – one of the Teshu Lamas, will take place, and the splendour of truth will then illuminate the whole world. We have here the true key to Tibetan exclusiveness.”
The undeniable importance of Asia in the work of the Adepts for the good of mankind should not lead the student to think that the only source of inspiration for the theosophical effort is located in that continent.
True Adepts are silently and intensely active in all time in different continents. HPB personally visited some of them in Egypt, in South America, Central America, and North America. Europe is not abandoned. However, the only way to know something about the Masters and their Disciples is by inner affinity with the Cause of Human Progress. Personal curiosity is often worse than useless, but co-workers are welcome to the Cause.
The essence of things is by definition beyond the world of appearance.
In Judaism, Pythagoreanism and Theosophy, the letters of the alphabet and numbers have several layers of meaning and magnetism. It is worthwhile to contemplate what HPB wrote about the letter that opens the name of the Mauryan Dynasty, and the name of her teacher.
She explains in “The Secret Doctrine”:
“…The Lotus and Water are among the oldest symbols, and in their origin are purely Aryan, though they became common property during the branching-off of the fifth race. Let us give an example. Letters, as much as numbers, were all mystic, whether in combination or each taken separately. The most sacred of all is the letter M. It is both feminine and masculine, or androgyne, and is made to symbolize WATER, the great deep, in its origin. It is mystic in all the languages, Eastern and Western, and stands as a glyph for the waves, thus: .”
“In the Aryan Esotericism, as in the Semitic, this letter has always stood for the waters; e.g., in Sanskrit MAKARA – the tenth sign of the Zodiac – means a crocodile, or rather an aquatic monster associated always with water. The letter MA is equivalent to and corresponds with number 5 – composed of a binary, the symbol of the two sexes separated, and of the ternary, symbol of the third life, the progeny of the binary. This, again, is often symbolised by a Pentagon, the latter being a sacred sign, a divine Monogram.”
Many sacred terms start with “M”:
“MAITREYA is the secret name of the Fifth Buddha, and the Kalki Avatar of the Brahmins – the last MESSIAH who will come at the culmination of the Great Cycle. It is also the initial letter of the Greek Metis or Divine Wisdom; of Mimra, the ‘word’ or Logos; and of Mithras (the Mihr), the Monad, Mystery. All these are born in, and from, the great Deep, and are the Sons of Maya – the Mother; in Egypt, Mouth, in Greece Minerva (divine wisdom), Mary, or Miriam, Myrrha, etc.; of the Mother of the Christian Logos, and of Maya, the mother of Buddha. Madhava and Madhavi are the titles of the most important gods and goddesses of the Hindu Pantheon. Finally, Mandala is in Sanskrit ‘a circle’ or an orb (the ten divisions of the Rig Veda). The most sacred names in India begin with this letter generally – from Mahat, the first manifested intellect, and Mandara, the great mountain used by the gods to churn the Ocean, down to Mandakin, the heavenly Ganga (Ganges), Manu, etc., etc.”
Blavatsky then asks:
“Shall this be called a coincidence? A strange one it is then, indeed, when we find even Moses – found in the water of the Nile – having the symbolical consonant in his name. And Pharaoh’s daughter ‘called his name Moses ….. because’, she said, ‘I drew him out of WATER’ (Exod. ii., 10.) Besides which the Hebrew sacred name of God applied to this letter M is Meborach, the ‘Holy’ or the ‘Blessed’ and the name for the water of the Flood is M’bul. A reminder of the ‘three Maries’ at the Crucifixion and their connection with Mar, the Sea, or Water, may close this example. This is why in Judaism and Christianity the Messiah is always connected with Water, Baptism, the Fishes (the sign of the Zodiac called Meenam in Sanskrit), and even with the Matsya (fish) Avatar, and the Lotus – the symbol of the womb, or the water-lily, which is the same.”
“In the relics of ancient Egypt”, says the great Russian disciple of the Masters, “the greater the antiquity of the votive symbols and emblems of the objects exhumed, the oftener are the lotus flowers and the water found in connection with the Solar Gods.” 
Blavatsky’s study in the letter “M” and the way she thinks while examining the issue serve as practical examples of universal consciousness.
In theosophy, one’s mind expands and one’s heart remains simple. Discernment gets sharper as common sense unfolds. One must be a personal friend of the Void, for the Void is the place where each thing and universal truth dwell. As the consciousness of a student embraces the Ocean of time and wisdom, his feet get firmer on the ground.
 From “Atlas of Ancient Worlds”, a pictorial atlas of past civilizations, by Dr. Anne Millard, Illustrated by Russell Barnett, published by Dorling Kindersley, London-New York-Stuttgart, 1994, 64 pp., see p. 46.
 Note by H. P. Blavatsky: “Of the dynasty of Moriyan Sovereigns”, as said in the Mahâvanśa – the particulars of this legend are recorded in the Atthakathâ of the Uttaravihâra priests.
 Boris de Zirkoff reports that this refers to the same text as on pp. 246-247, and 256-258, in Vol. V of the “Collected Writings”.
 Besides “The Theosophist”, December 1883, p. 99, Blavatsky’s answer will be found in the book “Five Years of Theosophy”, pp. 483-484, and in her “Collected Writings”, volume VI, pp. 40-42.
 First-published in the November 1883 edition of “The Theosophist”, pp. 38-43. Also published in “Five Years of Theosophy” (Theosophy Co., pp. 365-388) and in “Collected Writings” of H.P. Blavatsky, TPH, volume V, pp. 241-259. On the fact that the statues date from the first year after Sakya Muni’s death, see footnote on p. 246, “Collected Writings”, volume V.
 “Collected Writings”, vol. V, p. 246.
 “Collected Writings”, vol. V, p. 245.
 “Collected Writings”, vol. V, p. 246, footnote.
 “The Secret Doctrine”, vol. I, pp. 377-378.
 Note by HPB: “Matsya Purana” gives “Katapa”.
 “The Bhagavad-Gita”, from the Sanskrit by William Q. Judge, Theosophy Co., Los Angeles, 1986, 133 pages, Chapter Fourth, see p. 31.
 “Gita the Mother, Commentary by Dnyaneshwar Maharaj”, translated in English by Manu Subedar, Kalyani publishers, New Delhi, India, 1972, 318 pp., see chapter 4, p. 81.
 Note by HPB: A title of the Tashi-lhunpo Lama.
 See volume XIV, page 431, of HPB’s Collected Writings (TPH).
 See in our websites the articles “The Making of an Avatar”, “Krishnamurti and Theosophy”, and “Krishnamurti on Besantian Delusions”, by Carlos Cardoso Aveline; besides “Besant Announces She Is An Adept”, by Mary Lutyens.
 To know more about the work of the Masters in different parts of the world, readers will find in our associated websites the articles “The Observatory of Luxor” and “The Ancient Theosophy in the Andes”, both by C. C. Aveline.
 “The Secret Doctrine”, H. P. Blavatsky, Theosophy Co., volume I, pp. 384-385.
In September 2016, after a careful analysis of the state of the esoteric movement, a group of students decided to form the Independent Lodge of Theosophists, whose priorities include the building of a better future in the different dimensions of life.